Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Cancer occurs when changes called mutations occur in genes that regulate cell growth. Mutations cause cells to divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way.

Breast cancer is a cancer that develops in the breast cells. Typically, cancer occurs in the lobules or ducts of the breast.

Uncontrolled cancer cells often invade other healthy breast tissue and can travel to the lymph nodes under the arms.

Breast cancer-Lymph nodes

Symptoms of breast cancer

In the early stages, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. In many cases, it may be a tumor

It may be too small to feel, but an abnormality can still be seen on a mammogram. If a tumor is felt, the first sign is usually a new lump in the breast that was not there before. However, not all masses are cancerous.

The most common symptoms of breast cancer are:

Breast mass or thickening of tissue that is different from the surrounding tissue and has recently developed

  • Breast pain
  • Red, perforated skin on your entire breast
  • Swelling in all or part of your breast
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk
  • Bloody discharge from your nipple
  • Exfoliation, scaling or scaling of the nipple or breast skin
  • A sudden and unexplained change in the shape or size of your breast
  • Appearance changes on your breast skin
  • A lump or swelling under the arm

If you have any of these symptoms, it does not necessarily mean that you have breast cancer. For example, pain in the breast or breast mass can be caused by a benign cyst.

Breast pain

Types of breast cancer

There are several types of breast cancer and they fall into two main categories: “invasive” and “non-invasive“. While invasive cancer has spread from the ducts of the breast or glands to other parts of the breast.

Non-invasive cancer has not spread from the main tissue.

These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, which include the following:

Duct cancer in place

 In situ duct cancer (DCIS) is a non-invasive disease.

With DCIS, cancer cells are restricted to the ducts in your breast and have not invaded the surrounding breast tissue.

On-site lobular cancer

In situ lobular carcinoma (LCIS) is a cancer that grows in the mammary glands of your breast. Like DCIS, cancer cells do not invade surrounding tissue.

Invasive duct carcinoma. Invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of breast cancer starts in the breast ducts and then attacks the tissue near the breast. Once breast cancer has spread to tissues outside your mammary ducts, it can spread to other nearby organs and tissues.

Invasive lobular carcinoma

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) first develops in the lobules of your breast and attacks the surrounding tissue.

Other less common types of breast cancer include:

Paget’s disease of the nipple.

This type of breast cancer starts in the nipple ducts, but as it grows, it affects the skin and areola of the nipple.

Philods  tumor.

This very rare type of breast cancer grows in the connective tissue of the breast. Most of these tumors are benign, but others are cancerous.


 It is a cancer that grows in the blood vessels or lymph vessels of the breast.

Inflammatory breast cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare but aggressive form of breast cancer. The IBC is only between 1 and 5 percent of all sources of breast cancer.

Under these conditions, the cells block the lymph nodes near the breast, so the lymph vessels in the breast cannot drain properly. Instead of causing a tumor, IBC causes the breast to swell, look red, and feel hot. Breast cancer may look like cracked and thick orange peel.


Three times more negative breast cancer

Triple negative breast cancer is another rare disease that affects only about 10 to 20% of people with breast cancer. To diagnose triple-negative breast cancer, a tumor must have all three of the following characteristics:

  • No estrogen receptors. These are receptors on cells that attach to or bind to the hormone estrogen. If a tumor has estrogen receptors, estrogen can stimulate cancer to grow.
  • No progesterone receptors. These receptors are cells that bind to the hormone progesterone. If the tumor has progesterone receptors, progesterone can trigger cancer.

• Does not have excess HER2 protein on its surface. HER2 is a protein that promotes the growth of breast cancer.

ayhcare breast cancer

If a tumor meets these three criteria, the triple breast cancer label is negative. This type of breast cancer tends to grow and spread faster than other types of breast cancer.

Metastatic breast cancer

Metastatic breast cancer is another name for stage 4 breast cancer. It is breast cancer that has spread from your breast to other parts of the body such as the bones, lungs or liver.


Stages of breast cancer

Breast cancer can be divided into stages based on the size of the tumor or tumors and the extent of its spread. Cancers that are large or have invaded surrounding tissues or organs are at a higher stage than small cancers and / or are still in the breast. To stage breast cancer, doctors need to know:

If the cancer is invasive or non-invasive

How big is the tumor?

Are the lymph nodes involved or not?

If the cancer has spread to nearby tissues or organs

Breast cancer has five main stages: stages 0 to 5.

Stage 0 breast cancer

Step 0 is DCIS ..

Stage 1 breast cancer

Stage 2 breast cancer

Stage 3 breast cancer

Stage 4 breast cancer


Diagnosis of breast cancer

To determine if your symptoms are due to breast cancer or a benign breast disease, your doctor will perform a complete physical exam in addition to a breast exam. They may also order one or more diagnostic tests to help understand the cause of your symptoms.

Tests that can help diagnose breast cancer include:

  • Mammography
  • Sonography
  • Breast sampling
Stages of breast cancer

Breast cancer treatment

The stage of breast cancer, its extent (if any), and the size of the tumor all play a role in determining the type of treatment you need.


Various types of surgery may be used to remove breast cancer, including:

  • Lomectomy
  • Mastectomy
  • Sentinel node sampling
  • Dissection of axillary lymph nodes
  • Reciprocal preventive mastectomy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • medicines

Risk factors for breast cancer

Having any of these does not mean you have the disease.

Some risk factors, such as family history, cannot be avoided. You can change other risk factors such as smoking.

Risk factors for breast cancer include:

Age: The risk of breast cancer increases with age. Most invasive breast cancers occur in women over the age of 55.

Drinking alcohol

Dense breast tissue

Genes Women with the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations are more likely to develop breast cancer than women who do not. Other gene mutations may also affect your risk.

Premature menstruation If you had your first period before the age of 12, you are more likely to get breast cancer.

Childbirth at older ages. Women who do not have their first child before the age of 35 have an increased risk of breast cancer

Hormone Therapy. Women who use or are taking estrogen and progesterone medications to reduce menopausal symptoms are at higher risk for breast cancer.


Menopause starts late. Women who do not start menopause after age 55 are more likely to develop breast cancer.

Never get pregnant Women who have never been pregnant or have never had a full-term pregnancy are more likely to get breast cancer.

Previous Breast Cancer If you have breast cancer in one breast, you are more likely to get breast cancer in another breast or in another area of ​​the breast that has already been damaged.

Breast examination

In addition to mammography, breast exams are another way to look for signs of breast cancer.

self- assesment

Many women have breast self-examinations. It is best to do this test once a month, for one hour every hour. This test can help you get to know how your breasts look and feel to be aware of the changes that are taking place.

The good news is that breast cancer survival rates are improving. The survival rate was 90.6%

If you have symptoms that worry you, it is best to follow up.




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