What is a bone marrow transplant?
Bone marrow is a soft, spongy substance found inside bones that contains immature cells called hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells become one of three types of blood cells: white blood cells, which fight infection;
Red blood cells, which supply oxygen; And platelets, which help blood clot. Most hematopoietic stem cells are present in the bone marrow, but another type of cell, called peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC), can be found in the bloodstream. The blood in the umbilical cord also contains hematopoietic stem cells. In transplantation, cells from each of these three sources can be used. Bone marrow transplantation is a procedure performed to compensate for the loss of stem cells that have been destroyed by high-dose chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy.
Transplantation is done in three ways:
- In autologous transplants, patients receive their own stem cells.
- In syngeneic transplants, patients receive stem cells from their identical twin siblings.
- In allogeneic transplants, patients receive stem cells from their siblings or parents. Stranger individual (stranger donor) stem cells may also be used.
Bone marrow transplantation in Iran
Iran is the second country in the world in terms of bone marrow transplantation after Italy (in terms of the number of transplants). Complications of Iranian bone grafting method are less than advanced foreign centers.
Iran is the center of this treatment in the world with one thousand thalassemia bone marrow transplants and is the largest country in this field.
Bone marrow transplantation is scientifically and economically more valuable than other treatments in the field of difficult-to-treat patients.
Stem cell transplantation is one of the most important treatments for blood diseases such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, aplastic anemia, mydiplastic syndrome, malignant diseases such as leukemia and solid tumors, immune system failure and some metabolic diseases.
Conditions of bone marrow donors
The best bone marrow donors are similar siblings in terms of tissue compatibility with the patient, and priority is given to these. Relevant experiments should be performed to prove this. After these, relatives donors identified by immunologists may be present in the patient’s family; They can be good donors.
In the next step, unrelated donors that the textile compatibility banks or HLA that exist in our country and different countries and can identify the right donor through search, will be the next solution.
#Bone marrow-Thalassemia-Sickle cell anemia-Aplastic anemia-Mildiplastic syndrome-Malignant diseases-Blood leukemia-Solid tumors-Immune system failure-Metabolic diseases