Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects the movement of organs. Symptoms begin gradually, sometimes with just a tremor barely visible. Vibration is common.
In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may have little or no expression. Your hands may not swing while walking. The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease get worse as your condition progresses over time.
Although Parkinson’s disease is incurable, medications may significantly improve your symptoms. Sometimes, your doctor may suggest surgery to adjust certain areas of the brain and improve your symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can be different for everyone. Early symptoms may be mild and go unnoticed. Symptoms often start on one side of your body and usually get worse on the other side even after the onset of symptoms on both sides.
Trembling Trembling or trembling usually starts in one limb, often your hands or fingers. You may rub your thumb and forefinger back and forth, which is known as shaking the pill. Your hand may shake a lot when resting.
Loss of automatic movements. You may be able to make unconscious movements, such as blinking, smiling, or swinging your arms as you walk.
In Parkinson’s disease, certain nerve cells (nerve cells) in the brain gradually break down or die. Many of the symptoms are due to the loss of nerve cells that a chemical messenger in your brain produces called dopamine. When dopamine levels drop, it causes abnormal brain activity, leading to movement disorders and other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but the following symptoms have been reported as part of the information:
Genes Researchers have identified specific genetic mutations that can cause Parkinson’s disease. But these are uncommon, except in rare cases with many family members with Parkinson’s disease.
Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease include:
Young adults rarely experience Parkinson’s disease. It usually starts in mid or late life and increases with age. People usually get the disease around the age of 60 or older.
Having close relatives with Parkinson’s disease increases the risk of developing the disease. However, your risks are still small, unless you have many relatives with Parkinson’s disease in your family.
Parkinson’s disease is often associated with these additional problems, which may be treatable:
Problems with your thinking You may experience cognitive problems (dementia) and mental problems. These cases usually occur in the later stages of Parkinson’s disease. Such cognitive problems do not respond well to medications.
Swallowing problems As the condition progresses, you may have difficulty swallowing. Saliva may accumulate in your mouth due to slow swallowing, leading to water loss.
Chewing and eating problems. In the later stages, Parkinson’s disease affects the muscles of your mouth and makes chewing difficult. This can lead to suffocation and poor nutrition.
Sleep problems and sleep disorders. People with Parkinson’s often have trouble sleeping, including waking up frequently at night, waking up early, or going to bed during the day.
People may also experience sleep-disordered behavior, which includes making your dreams come true. Medications may help your sleep problems.
Bladder problems. Parkinson’s disease can cause bladder problems, including inability to control urination or difficulty urinating.
Constipation. Many people with Parkinson’s disease develop constipation, the main cause of which is a slowing down of the gastrointestinal tract.
Also, the following factors may have happened in some cases?
Blood pressure changes. You may feel dizzy or light-headed while standing due to a sudden drop in blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension).
Fatigue. Many people with Parkinson’s disease, especially late in the day, lose energy and experience fatigue. The cause is not always clear.
There are no specific tests to diagnose Parkinson’s disease. Your doctor, who is trained under a nervous system condition (neurologist), diagnoses Parkinson’s disease based on your medical history, examining your signs and symptoms, and a neurological and physical examination.
Your doctor may recommend a special single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan called a dopamine transporter scan (DaTscan). Although this can help with the suspicion of Parkinson’s disease, it is the symptoms and the neurological examination that ultimately determine the correct diagnosis. Most people do not need DaTscan.
Imaging tests – such as MRI, brain ultrasound, and PET scans – may also be used to help rule out other disorders. Imaging tests are not helpful in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease.
Sometimes it takes time to diagnose Parkinson’s disease. Doctors may have regular follow-up appointments with trained neurologists to assess your condition and symptoms to review and diagnose Parkinson’s disease.
Deep brain stimulation.
In deep brain stimulation (DBS), surgeons implant electrodes in a specific part of your brain. The electrodes are attached to a generator implanted in your chest near your collarbone, which sends electrical pulses to your brain.