Glaucoma is a disease that leads to progressive damage to the optic nerve, followed by a decrease in peripheral vision first and then central vision, and can lead to blindness if left untreated.


Epidemiology :

There are currently over 70 million people in the world with the disease, and about 10% of these people suffer from bilateral blindness .This disease is the second leading cause of blindness in the world and unlike cataract, which is the first cause of blindness in the world, low vision or blindness caused by glaucoma can not be corrected or reversed.

Approximately 1-3% of people over the age of 40 in any community may have the disease. In advanced societies, even 50% of patients are unaware of their disease and are often informed of their disease in routine examinations and by chance. This level of ignorance is reported in other societies up to 80-90%.


Causes associated with the disease:

 1: Increased intraocular pressure:

The most important cause of this disease is an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal people, the eye pressure is often between 10-21 mm Hg .In 80% of patients diagnosed with glaucoma, the pressure in the eye is higher than 21 mm Hg, but in 20%, the pressure may be within the normal range, but the disease occurs.


optic nerve

The effect of high eye pressure on the optic nerve

Natural anatomy image of the eye

  Natural anatomy image of the eye


The positive family background in this disease is very strong and many genes related to this disease have been mentioned. People who have a family history of this disease(especially in the first degree family) are 2-4 times more at risk of this disease than people without a family history.  Are located.

3: Age

The disease can occur at any age, from one-day-old infants to older ages, but is mostly over 40 years old.       


Some races, such as blacks or yellow races, are more susceptible to the disease, and in particular the severity, timing, and type of disease may vary.

5:Medications and nutrition

Corticosteroids, especially those used for a long time as eye drops or ointments, can play a role in the development of this disease, especially in those who have a positive family history of the disease.  Oral use of steroids is less likely, but if used for a long time can be the cause of the disease.  Even breathing or nasal sprays can be effective.  Consumption of a specific diet is not associated with the incidence of this disease, but in people with glaucoma, regular consumption of fruits and vegetables in the diet may be effective in reducing the progression of the disease. Caffeine consumption in this disease can also be associated with increased intraocular pressure.

6 :Sport activities

Performing continuous isotonic and aerobic sports activities (running, swimming, cycling, etc.) can reduce eye strain and prevent disease progression.  Rarely in some cases of glaucoma, intraocular pressure increases with exercise.

7: Other systemic and ocular diseases

This disease is more common in patients with a history of previous eye surgeries, especially retinal surgeries, and people who have had multiple eye surgeries or a history of eye trauma.  People with poor eyesight who wear glasses with high numbers, both positive and negative (Hyperopia and Myopia) are more likely to develop the disease.  In patients with a history of diabetes or high blood pressure, the risk of disease is higher     

Signs and symptoms:

In the case of patients with open glaucoma, in most cases, unfortunately, there are no specific symptoms at the beginning of the disease, and only in advanced cases where the patient’s central vision is reduced, the person sees a doctor and is diagnosed with the disease.  It is called silent disease (Silent thieriot sight).

 Types of glaucoma surgeries:

1: Trabeculectomy:

2: Shunt procedure:

3: Non penetrating surgeries

4: Glaucoma surgery in infants and newborns: It is mainly performed by two methods: Goniotomy or Trabeculotomy.

5: Cyclodestructive procedur

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